Construction workers need very acurate instruments, for instance for placing the foundation plates of gunbunkers and firecontrol stands in the correct position. This category of fine optical instruments has not earned the respect it deserves.

This is a first start on a chapter with instruments used for surveying. In the war many civil levels and theodolites were used, makers like Wild Heerbrugg and Fennel are famous for their products. However there are also instruments made for military use.